Skip to main content

Why does vacuum in steam condenser reduce or drop??

  1-High exhaust temperature: Vacuum drops or maintains at lower side due to high exhaust steam temperature flow into steam condenser. This high exhaust temperature is mainly due to 1-Operation of Turbine at lower loads 2-More clearance in labyrinth seals 3-Not operating exhaust hood sprays 4-More load on condenser 5-Breaking of ejector U loop 2-Low circulating cooling water flow Vacuum in condenser reduces due to inadequate cooling water flow through steam condenser. This is mainly due to; 1-Problems associated with pumps 2-Air pockets in pipe line 3-Leakages in cooling water line 4-Stuck of discharge valve of pump 3-High cooling water temperature at condenser inlet Higher cooling water temperature at condenser inlet results into reduction of vacuum due to poor heat transfer from steam to water 4-Poor heat transfer in condenser Very less or poor heat transfer in steam condenser reduces vacuum to very low level resulting into high exhaust temperature &am

30-Things you must know on steam turbine & auxiliaries



1-During cold start up turbine inlet steam  minimum temperature should be saturation temperature at the particular pressure + 50 Deg C.
Example: Turbine operating at 67 kg/cm2 pressure, its inlet steam temperature should be285+50 =335 deg C

2-Distinguishing the Turbine starts up types.
  • Cold start up- when HP and IP inner casing temperature is lower or equal 170oC
  • Warm start up- when HP and IP inner casing temperature is lower or equal 430oC
  • Hot start up – when HP and IP inner casing temperature is greater than 430oC.
Read Power generation phenomenon in STG



3-To open ESV the vacuum should be at least 0.3 Kg/cm2A (-0.73 kg/cm2)

4-In turbine rotors, over speed trip bolt is always fitted at the DE side only. This is because, not weaken the Turbine NDE side shaft, as NDE side shaft size is already made small & drilled for key ways

5-Expansion bellows for lube oil lines are fitted at the Turbine front bearings, as Turbine expansion occurs towards front end

6-In oil cooler heat exchangers,oil pressure is always kept at higher side than water pressure. This is to avoid entry oil water in lube oil system.

7-In many Turbine, control oil (oil used for HP, LP valves actuators & ESV) is used at higher temperature 55-60 deg C.This is because “Actuators & ESV components are operating at very less clearance need low oil viscosity.




TOP-6 BEST POWER PLANT O&M BOOKS


8-Control oil filters are of lesser filter size as compared to lube oil filters. 
Generally filters are designed based on the minimum clearance through which the oil flow, hence lube oil filters are of higher openings (25 to 40 microns) as bearings clearance will be in the range of 200 microns to 500 microns. Control oil filters are of lesser size openings (10 to 25 microns) , as discussed earlier Actuators & ESV components are operating at very less clearance up to 50 microns.
9-Positive displacement Lube oil pumps have in built as well as external PRVs (Fitted at the discharge line).Lube oil pumps (Positive displacement pumps) are always started with discharge valve open unlike centrifugal pumps

10-Emergency oil pump do not have PRVs
11-Emergency oil pumps flow capacity = Main/Auxiliary oil pump X 25%
12-Emergency oil pump pressure = Main oil pump pressure X 30%
13-Control oil pumps flow capacity = Main/Auxiliary oil pump X 10%
14-For lube oil coolers: Cooling water flow = Oil flow X 2
15-For lube oil coolers , Heat load in KW = Cooler surface area X 5.3
16-Turbine lube oil consumes 30 to 35% of total cooling water required for plant auxiliary
17-Generator air cooler consumes 20 to 25% of total cooling water required for plant auxiliary
18-Bearing inlet  oil pressure during high rotor speed (Normal operation) is lesser than that of low speed (During barring gear operation)
19-There is always off set alignment between Turbine rotor & Gear box pinion shaft. This is for accommodating the misalignment during operation, as Gear box is operating at higher oil temperature than Turbine.
        Generally Gear box pinion shaft is kept at lower level (0.15 to 0.3 mm) & offset side depends on the direction of rotation of Turbine shaft viewed from turbine front end. If Turbine rotor is rotating clockwise then offset is towards RHS.
20-Low oil temperature can damage the Turbine bearings: Because;
When temperature decreases too much, oil in the bearing becomes so viscous that it clings to the shaft surface which drags it around the bearing. This makes the oil wedge in the bearing lose. its stability. The pulsating wedge excites high rotor vibration referred to as oil whip or oil whirl.
Too low temperature - and hence, too large viscosity - of the bearing inlet oil causes the bearing oil flow to decrease due to increased friction in the oil supply piping. The reduced oil flow may be too small for adequate cooling, causing bearing overheating and possible damage.
21-Slight sub atmospheric pressure is maintained inside the bearing housing and its drain line by the vapour extraction fans installed on the lube oil tank cover. Why is this pressure maintained? 
First.
To prevent oil mist from escaping past the bearing oil seals into the turbine hall.
Second. 
To prevent accumulation of hydrogen and oil vapour in the lube oil tank atmosphere, which could create an explosion hazard
·   
22-For lube oil:
During normal operation, water is removed from the oil by the oil purifier and the vapour extraction fans. During a long outage, water can also be drained from the bottom of the lube oil tank.
23-Main oil tank level:
The major adverse consequence/operating concern caused by too low tank level is impaired pump performance due to cavitation and possibly vapour locking or gas locking. The lower the oil level, the smaller the suction head of the pumps in the tank. Pump cavitation and eventually vapour locking can result. The lowered level can also lead to ingress of gases from the tank atmosphere into the pump suction piping, and then the pump itself. An excessive accumulation of gases in the pump can decrease its capacity, and finally result in pump gas locking. Too high tank level increases the risk of tank overfill. The resultant oil spill has its own adverse consequences such as an environmental hazard.
24-Rotor lift due to jacking oil pressure
Drive end :0.1 mm & NDE :0.05 mm
The jacking oil pressure at the bearing inlet is not controlled. As the oil is supplied by a positive displacement pump, its pressure rises until the bearing resistance to the oil flow is overcome. This happens when the turbine generator rotor is lifted off the bearings.
25-Wheel chamber pressure = (Turbine inlet pressure X Turbine load in MW X 0.6)/Turbine Capacity in MW
26-Steam condensers has fixed support at cooling water inlet side & sliding support at the opposite side
27-Surface condensers installed at higher elevation are always producing lower vacuum.Power plants installed at  or near the sea produce high vacuum
28-At steam condensers Vacuum breaker valves are provided to bring down the rotor speed to zero as early as possible  
29-Closing time of ESV & HP control valves are 0.3 to 0.4 seconds and 0.4 to 0.6 seconds respectively
30-Pressure of N2 gas in control oil accumulator is 2 to 3 kg/cm2 lesser than control oil line pressure
31-For STG: Bearing temperature trend goes on decreasing from Turbine front to Generator rear end
32-For STG: Bearing Vibrations trend goes on increasing from Turbine front to Generator rear end



Available @ Flipkart/Amazon/Notion press


Comments

Frequently visited posts

Boiler feed pumps (BFP) questions & answers for interview

Boiler feed pumps (BFP) questions & answers for interview: 1-What is the function of Boiler feed pumps (BFP) in power plant? Functions: To supply the feed water to boilers To conduct the Boiler hydraulic tests To supply the desuperheating & attemperator water required for process steam lines & boilers respectively TOP-6 BEST POWER PLANT O&M BOOKS Boiler calculations for Boiler operation engineer (BOE) exam Viva Questions & answers for preparation of BOE exam & interview  2- What are the type of prime movers (drives) used for BFPs? Prime movers: LT drive (415 V) HT drive (11 KV) Turbo drive (Steam driven) 3-What are the auxiliaries associated with BFP? BFP auxiliaries Cooling water pump & lines Lube oil system ARC valve Mechanical seal flushing system Balance leak off line & its PRV 4-What are the various pipe lines connected to BFP? Questions & Answers on AFBC Boilers Suction pipe line D

Basic things you must know about nut bolts & spanners

A Bolt is a mechanical device which has head on one end of a body and a thread on the other end designed for fastening of two parts. Bolt is inserted into holes in assembly parts, it is mated with a tapped nut. Tension is normally induced in the bolt to compress the assembly by rotating the nut. This may also be done by rotation of the bolt head. A Screw is a headed and threaded bolt used without a nut. It is inserted into an internally tapped hole and tension is induced by rotation of the screw head. A Stud is a fastener with no head but it has threads at both ends of the shank. It, like a screw, has one end those screws into a tapped hole. A nut is used on the other end to create tension. Major diameter – largest diameter of thread (D) Minor diameter – smallest diameter of thread Pitch – distance between adjacent threads.       Boiler calculations for Boiler operation engineer (BOE) exam TOP-6 BEST POWER PLANT O&M BOOKS Types of nut bolts & Washer

Calculation of heat rate & efficiency of the power plant

Heat rate  is the amount of energy used by an electrical generator/power plant to generate one kilo Watt-hour (kWh) of electricity Heat rate (HR) = Heat input / Power generation =Kcal / Kwh Boiler calculations for Boiler operation engineer (BOE) exam Viva Questions & answers for preparation of BOE exam & interview Total heat input: The chemical energy available in the fuel (coal, biomass, oil, gas etc) is converted into heat energy in Boilers, this process is called as oxidation. The heat available in the fuel is measured in terms of Kcal/kg, KJ/kg or BTU units. The part of this fuel is used as useful heat and rest is lost as dry flue gas loss, moisture loss, un  burnt loss, radiation/convection losses etc.Based on Boiler efficiency this heat energy from the fuel is utilised, generally fuel heat utilisation is in the range of 60 to 90%. This heat generated in the boilers due to oxidation of fuel is used to generate high pressure & temperature steam. Thus genera

STEAM CONDENSER,VACUUM AND CALCULATIONS

A steam condenser is device or an appliance in which steam condenses and heat released by steam is absorbed by water. Heat is basically shell & tube type heat exchanger, where cooling water passes through tubes & steam condenses in shell. The functions of the condensers are: It condenses the steam exhausted from Turbine last stage Increase the thermal efficiency of the plant reducing the exhaust pressure and thereby reducing the exhaust temperature It maintains a very low back pressure on the exhaust side of the Turbine Supplies feed water to Boiler through deaerator TOP-6 BEST POWER PLANT O&M BOOKS Condenser related components: Hot well Cooling water inlet & outlet system Cooling tower Support springs or expansion neck Air Ejector system Condensate extraction system Cooling water tubes & tube sheet Vacuum breaker valve Safety valve or rapture disc Water box Air & water vent lines Types of steam condensers: Surface Co

22-Most likely Question Answer Guide for Boilers troubleshooting

TOP-6 BEST POWER PLANT O&M BOOKS 1.What are the emergencies that are expected to happen in boiler operation? Emergencies that can happen in boilers operation are: Boilers tubes leakage Failure of feed water control station Unbalanced draft in furnace Furnace explosion Blow down valve failure Feed water pumps failure Secondary combustion in super heaters and ESP Also read 16-Perfect reasons for increasing the fuel consumption of Boilers 2.List out the potential reasons for boiler tubes failure. Reasons for boiler tubes failure: Failure due to overheating Failure due to internal scales Failure due to aging Failure due to uneven expansion Failure due to ash and flue gas erosion Failure due to material defects Failure due to internal and external tube corrosion Improper or effected circulation due to opening/passing of low point drains 3.List down the sequential action taken after boiler tube leakage to restore the boiler. Following activities ar

Questions answers & calculation on Boiler draught & Chimney

1-What do you mean by the term draught? It is the pressure difference, which causes flow of gases to take places. 2-What is the function of draught in Boiler? To supply the combustion air required for proper combustion To evacuate the combustion products from the furnace or combustion chamber To evacuate the combustion products to the atmosphere So draught is the pressure difference between the inside the boiler and outside air. Inside the boiler pressure is due to combustion products (Flue gas) & outside pressure is due to fresh atmospheric air. 3-What are the different types of draughts used in power plant boilers? There are mainly two types of draughts. Natural draught & artificial draught Natural draught is generally obtained by Chimney Artificial draughts have main two types Steam jet: It is again classified into Induced & forced draught Mechanical draught: This is classified into Induced draught, forced draught & Natural draught

Boiler calculations for Boiler operation Engineer Exam (BOE)

  1-Oxygen percentage in Boiler outlet flue gas is 4.9%, then what will be the percentage of excess air? We have excess air EA = O2 X 100 / (21-O2)                                    EA = 4.7 X 100 / (20-4.7)                                    EA = 30.71% 2-Calculate the Oxygen level (O2) in flue gas, if excess air is 25% We have Excess air EA = O2 X 100 / (21-O2)                                    25 = O2 X 100 / (21-O2)                                    O2 = 4.2% 3-A Boiler’s combustion system requires 5.5 kg of air for burning 1 kg of fuel, then calculate the total air required for complete combustion if its flue gas has 4.1% of O2 We have, Total air = (1 + EA/100) X Theoretical air EA = O2 X 100 / (21-O2) EA = 4.1 X 100 / (20-4.1) = 25.78% Therefore Total air = (1 + 25.78/100) X 5.5 = 6.92 kg of air per kg of fuel burnt 4-A Coal fired boiler having total heating surface area 5200 M2 produces 18 kg of steam per square meter per hour of heating surface, then calculate the Boiler cap
close