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Showing posts with the label Water treatment plant

50-selected Questions and Answers on Water treatment plant(WTP) for Boiler engineers

1. What are the sources of Boiler feed water? River, Underground water (bore well), pond water and sea water. 2. What is make up water? Raw water, softened water or demineralized water used for steam generation is generally called as make up water. 3. What are the various impurities present in untreated or natural water? Undissolved suspended materials: mud, sand, sediments etc. Dissolved salts and minerals: Carbonate, bicarbonate, sulphates, silicate and nitrate of calcium & magnesium. Dissolved gases such as oxygen, carbon dioxide. Other minerals, mineral acid (HCL & H 2 SO 4 ) oil and grease. Raw water sources & impurities 4. What is condensate water? When the steam transfers its heat to process or heat exchanger, it reverts to liquid phase called condensate. 5. What is blow down water? Part of water that is drained to limit the impurity level to an acceptable level. 6. What is feed water? Feed water is the sum of condensate that is retur

40- thumb rules/standards you must know in water treatment plant

1-Clarifier (HRSCC) outlet pH is 1 to 1.5 units lesser than inlet pH or out let pH is 10 to 15% lesser than inlet pH 2-Clarifier outlet water conductivity increases by 115 to 125% than its inlet water conductivity 3-Hardness of water at clarifier outlet decreases slightly (1 to 3 ppm) than its inlet water 4-Losses in clarifier = Inlet water X 2% 5-Detention time in clarifier = The time it takes for a drop of water to travel from inlet to outlet Detention time = Clarifier tank volume M 3 / Flow rate M3/day Actually clarifiers are designed for detention time for 3 to 4 hours. If clarifier inlet flow increases detention time reduces & vice versa 6-For reverse osmosis Permeate water pH=Inlet water pH X 80-85% Permeate water conductivity =Inlet water conductivity X 5-15% Reject water pH =Inlet water pH X 105 to 110% Reject water conductivity = Inlet water conductivity X 325 to 350% 7-Pressure drop in RO cartridge filter will be 0.1 to 0.2 kg/cm2 Water tr