Mastodon Power plant and calculations: What is the significance of Terminal temperature difference (TTD) in feed water heaters ???

### What is the significance of Terminal temperature difference (TTD) in feed water heaters ???

The Terminal Temperature Difference (ΔT or delta T) is a crucial concept in the field of heat transfer and thermodynamics. It represents the temperature difference between the hot and cold fluids in a heat exchanger at the point where they leave the heat exchanger. The significance of terminal temperature difference lies in its impact on the efficiency and performance of heat exchange processes.

Terminal temperature difference is the difference between the saturation temperature at the operating pressure of the inlet steam to the heater and the temperature of the feed water leaving the heater.

The heating steam temperature they are talking about is the saturation temperature of the steam for the given supply pressure. The highest pressure heater is almost always receiving steam that is still superheated (Energy above saturation temp/pressure) If the incoming steam has 15 degrees of superheat, and the outgoing feed water absorbs all of that and is heated to 2 degrees above the saturation temperature of the supplied heating steam pressure, You have a negative 2 degree TTD.

Most of the other heaters are heated with steam from further down the turbine steam path, and have very little or no super heat in their steam, therefore, no negative TTD.

Terminal temperature difference provides feedback on the feed water heater’s performance relative to heat transfer

Significance of TTD.

1-It gives the feed back on performance of heat exchanger

2-Higher TTD is nothing but thee is more difference between saturation temperature of steam and feed water leaving the heater.This indicates the poor performance of heater.Similarly lower TTD is nothing but thee is small difference between saturation temperature of steam and feed water leaving the heater.This indicates the good heat transfer between steam and feed water & hence there is better performance of heater

3-The concept of "temperature approach" is closely related to ΔT. The temperature approach is the difference between the temperature of the hot fluid and the temperature of the cold fluid at the end of the heat exchanger. A smaller temperature approach is often desired to maximize heat transfer efficiency, but it is limited by practical considerations.

4-the terminal temperature difference is a key parameter in the analysis, design, and optimization of heat exchange systems. It plays a vital role in determining heat transfer rates, efficiency, and the size of heat exchangers, ultimately impacting the performance and cost of thermal systems in various engineering applications

5-Station heat rate will improve

6-Cycle efficiency will increase

7-Less steam consumption for feed water heating

Read more>>>> on Drain cooler approach-DCA

Calculation of TTD of feed water heater.

1-A HP heater is used to heat the feed water from 125 °C to 160 °C by using MP steam at pressure 13 kg/cm2 at temperature 280 °C, calculate the TTD.

We have,

TTD = Saturation temperature of inlet steam - Feed water outlet temperature

Saturation temperature of inlet steam at 13 kg/cm2g pressure = 195.6 °C

TTD = 195.6 - 160 = 35.6 °C

Note: For best performance, heaters are designed to get TTD 3 to 5 °C at full operation capacity.

2-A LP heater is used to heat the feed water from 80 °C to 110 °C by using LP steam at pressure 2.5 kg/cm2A at temperature150 °C, calculate the TTD.

We have,

TTD = Saturation temperature of inlet steam - Feed water outlet temperature

Saturation temperature of inlet steam at 2.5 kg/cm2g pressure = 125°C

TTD = 125-110= 15 °C

3-A HP heater is used to heat the feed water from 105°C to 140 °C by using MP steam at pressure 8 kg/cm2 at temperature 220 °C, calculate the TTD.

We have,

TTD = Saturation temperature of inlet steam - Feed water outlet temperature

Saturation temperature of inlet steam at 8 kg/cm2g pressure = 170 °C

TTD = 170 - 140 = 30 °C

Note: For best performance, heaters are designed to get TTD 3 to 5 °C at full operation capacity.

4-A LP heater is used to heat the feed water from 47 °C to 78 °C by using LP steam at pressure 0.62 kg/cm2A at temperature 87 °C, calculate the TTD.

We have,

TTD = Saturation temperature of inlet steam - Feed water outlet temperature

Saturation temperature of inlet steam at 0.62 kg/cm2g pressure = 87 °C

TTD = 87 - 78 = 9 °C