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Why does vacuum in steam condenser reduce or drop??

  1-High exhaust temperature: Vacuum drops or maintains at lower side due to high exhaust steam temperature flow into steam condenser. This high exhaust temperature is mainly due to 1-Operation of Turbine at lower loads 2-More clearance in labyrinth seals 3-Not operating exhaust hood sprays 4-More load on condenser 5-Breaking of ejector U loop 2-Low circulating cooling water flow Vacuum in condenser reduces due to inadequate cooling water flow through steam condenser. This is mainly due to; 1-Problems associated with pumps 2-Air pockets in pipe line 3-Leakages in cooling water line 4-Stuck of discharge valve of pump 3-High cooling water temperature at condenser inlet Higher cooling water temperature at condenser inlet results into reduction of vacuum due to poor heat transfer from steam to water 4-Poor heat transfer in condenser Very less or poor heat transfer in steam condenser reduces vacuum to very low level resulting into high exhaust temperature &am

How do you preserve the power plants equipments in long shutdown??

POWER PLANT EQUIPMENTS LONG SHUTDOWN PRESERVATION METHODS SL NO. EQUIPMENT PRESERVATION METHOD A MECHANICAL 1 Boiler 1-Wet preservation (If shutdown period is up to one month) Maintain pH: 10-10.5 Hydrazine concentration :> 200 ppm Note: Check water sample at various locations like steam drum, mud drum, super heater, economiser & Water wall tubes. Concentration should be same at all collection points 2- Dry Preservation (If shutdown period is more than one month) 2 Deaerator & Surge tanks Wet preservation Maintain pH: 10-10.5 Hydrazine concentration :>200 ppm 3 Travelling grate (TG) After cleaning, inspection & Maintenance, keep run TG at least 10-15 minutes on every 6-7 days to avoid shaft jam in bush/bearings 4 ESP After cleaning & Inspection, close all the m

50-selected Questions and Answers on Water treatment plant(WTP) for Boiler engineers

1. What are the sources of Boiler feed water? River, Underground water (bore well), pond water and sea water. 2. What is make up water? Raw water, softened water or demineralized water used for steam generation is generally called as make up water. 3. What are the various impurities present in untreated or natural water? Undissolved suspended materials: mud, sand, sediments etc. Dissolved salts and minerals: Carbonate, bicarbonate, sulphates, silicate and nitrate of calcium & magnesium. Dissolved gases such as oxygen, carbon dioxide. Other minerals, mineral acid (HCL & H 2 SO 4 ) oil and grease. Raw water sources & impurities 4. What is condensate water? When the steam transfers its heat to process or heat exchanger, it reverts to liquid phase called condensate. 5. What is blow down water? Part of water that is drained to limit the impurity level to an acceptable level. 6. What is feed water? Feed water is the sum of condensate that is retur