### How to calculate the quantity of oxygen required for gas cutting operation?

We know that, for gas cutting operation generally we use combination of oxygen and LPG or Oxygen and acetylene.But now a days for some industry LPG is banned for safety point of view.

Following table gives the difference between Oxy-acetyle and Oxy-LPG gas cutting

 COMPARISON BETWEEN ACETYLENE AND LPG FUELS FOR GAS CUTTING OPERATION SL No. Acetylene LPG (Propane) 1 Highest flame temperature up to 3100 Deg C Flame temperature up to 2800 Deg C 2 Flame speed up to 7.5 m/sec Flame speed up to 3.3 m/sec 3 Most of the heat released is in inner cone Most of the heat released is in outer cone 4 Higher flame GCV of inner cone (4500 kcal/M3) Lower flame GCV of inner cone (2500 kcal/M3) as compared to acetylene 5 Stoichiometric air fuel ratio1.2:1 (Requires 2.5 to 3 Oxygen cylinders for burning one Acetylene cylinder) Stoichiometric  air fuel ratio 4.3:1 (Requires 7 to 8 Oxygen cylinders for burning one LPG cylinder) 6 Can be used in gas welding, as acetylene when burning with air creates reducing zone that cleans the steel surface Cannot be used in gas welding as it does not create reducing zone 7 Acetylene has Specific gravity 0.9 kg/m3, so if it leaks it will raise in air without harming much Propane  has Specific gravity 1.6 kg/m3,which is heavier than air.So if it leaks it will concentrate in deck level or any other closed/corner area 8 Acetylene requires less air for complete combustion Propane requires more air for complete combustion, so there may be chances of formation of carbon monoxide (CO) in case of incomplete combustion. This incomplete combustion may result into poisoning of working area, as CO is poisonous gas 9 Can be used for cutting & welding applications in industry Used only for domestic applications

Calculate the number of Oxygen cylinders required to consume 1 no.of industrial LPG cylinder for gas cutting operation

Commercial LPG (C3H8) has 19 kg weight that is 19 kg of propane

Combustion equation of propane

C3H8 + 5O2 = 3CO2 + 4 H2O

44 + 160 = 132 + 72 (Molecular weight of C = 12, O = 16, H = 1)

Divide equation by 44

1 + 3.63 = 3 +1.63

From above result it is clear that 3.63 kg of Oxygen is required to burn 1 kg of Propane to achieve 100% combustion.

So for burning 19 kg of commercial LPG, need 19 X 3.63 = 68.97 Kg of oxygen

Volume of oxygen cylinder in cylinder = 6.9 M3 compressed at 140-150 kg/cm2

Convert 6.9 to kg by dividing oxygen density, we get weight of O2 in cylinder = 9.1 kg

So total O2 cylinders required = 68.97 / 9.1 =7.58 Nos for consuming 1 LPG cylinder

Calculate the number of Oxygen cylinders required to consume 1 no.of dilute acetylene cylinder for gas cutting operation

DA (C2H2) cylinder has 8 m3 of acetylene

Convert volume to kg by multiplying the density of the gas

8 X 0.899 = 7.192 kg

Combustion equation of propane

2C2H2 + 5O2 = 4CO2 + 2H2O

52 + 160 = 176 + 36 (Molecular weight of C = 12, O = 16, H = 1)

Divide equation by 52

1 + 3.07 = 3.38 +0.69

So for burning 7.192 kg of DA, need 7.192 X 3.07 = 22.07 Kg of oxygen

So total O2 cylinders required = 22.07 / 9.1 =2.42 Nos

Note:

DA (Dilute Acetylene): OD 265 mm X Height 1 meter (Appx) and thickness 4.0 mm.Volume of acetylene in cylinder is 8.5 m3

Oxygen cylinder size : OD 235 mm X Height 1.34 meter (Appx) and thickness 4.0 mm.Volume of O2 in cylinder is 6.9 m3

For more read>>>power plant and calculations

### How to calculate the quantity of lime stone required to reduce SO2 emission ??

We know that, Lime stone is nothing but Calcium carbonate (CacO3)

Lime stone (CaCo3) on heating gets converted into slaked lime and carbon dioxide

i.e,

CaCo3 + Heat = Cao + Co2

Shall calculate, quantity of CacO3 required for converting into Cao.

Molecular weight of Ca = 40 g/mol

Molecular weight of Oxygen = 16 g/mol

Molecular weight of Carbon = 12 g/mol

Molecular weight of Sulphur = 32 g/mol

Sulphur on heating gets converted into Sulphur di-oxide (SO2)

Therefore we have,

CaCo3 + Heat = Cao + CO2

(40+12+3X16) + Heat = (40+16) + (12+2X16)

100 + Heat           = 56 + 44

1 + Heat = 0.56 + 0.44-----------I

This implies, 1 kg of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) on heating gets converted into 0.56 kg of slaked lime & 0.44 kg of CO2

Further,Sulphur present in coal, on combustion gets converted into sulphur dioxide (SO2)

Shall calculate, quantity of SO2 generated on combustion of 1 kg of sulphur

S + O2 = SO2

32 + 2X16 = 32+2X16

32 + 32 = 64

1 + 1 = 2-----II

This means, 2 kg of SO2 will produce on combustion of 1 kg of sulphur.

Further,Slaked lime (Cao) reacts with Sulphur dioxide (SO2) & converts into Calcium sulphate (CaSO4)

i.e

Cao + SO2 + O2 = CaSO4

(40+16) + (32 + 2X16) + 16 = (40+32+4X16)

56 +(32 + 2X16) + 16 = 136

56 + 64 + 16 = 136

0.875 + 1 + 0.25 = 2.12------III

This means, 1 kg of So2 needs 0.875 kg of Cao to produce  2.42 kg of Calcium sulphate

i.e, On burning 1 kg of sulphur there produces 2 kg of SO2 (refer equation-II), hence Cao required to reduce sulphur from 1 kg So2 = 2 X 0.875 = 1.75 kg

Similarly referring equation-I, 1 kg of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) on heating gets converted into 0.56 kg of slaked lime(Cao)

Therefore  lime stone required for 1 kg sulphur to convert it into CaSO4 is;

1.75/0.56 = 3.125 kg

Considering 95% efficiency for above combustion, total lime stone required for 1 kg sulphur to get converted it into CaSo4 is;

3.125 X 105% = 3.28 kgs-------IV

Demonstration with example.

A 50 MW coal based power plant has specific fuel consumption 0.75 kg/kwh.The sulphur content in the coal is 0.75%, the maximum permissible limit of sulphur in the coal is 0.5%.Calculate the amount of lime stone required to reduce SO2 emission.

Assuming SO2 emission at 0.5% sulphur in coal is normal.

Extra % of sulphur in coal is = 0.75-0.5 = 0.25%

Coal consumption per day

Specific fuel consumption = 0.75 kg/kwh

Total power generation in a day = 50 X 1000 X 24 = 1200000 kw

Total coal consumption = 1200000 X 0.75 / 1000 = 900 MT/day

Extra Sulphur burned  = 900 X 0.25% = 2.25 MT or 2250 kg/day

Lime stone required to reduce SO2 emission is 2250 X 3.28 = 7380 kg (refer equation-IV)

### What is the significance of Drain cooler approach (DCA)??

In the context of feed water heaters, "DCA" could stand for "Drain Cooler Approach." The drain cooler approach in feed water heaters is a parameter that represents the temperature difference between the temperature of the extracted steam and the temperature of the drain (condensate) leaving the feed water heater.

Feed water heaters are devices used in power plants to preheat the water before it enters the boiler. The heat for this preheating process comes from extracting steam from various stages of the turbine. The drain cooler approach is a key parameter to monitor and control because it affects the overall efficiency of the power plant.

A lower drain cooler approach means that more heat is transferred from the extracted steam to the feed water, increasing the overall efficiency of the power plant. It's an important factor in designing and operating feed water heaters to optimize the thermal performance of the power generation system.

DCA is the temperature difference between the drains (steam condensate) leaving the heater and the temperature of feed water entering the heater. For more cycle efficiency TTD value should be small.

Significance of DCA.

1-It gives the feed back on performance of heat exchanger

2-Higher TTD is nothing but thee is more difference between saturation temperature of steam and feed water leaving the heater.This indicates the poor performance of heater.Similarly lower TTD is nothing but thee is small difference between saturation temperature of steam and feed water leaving the heater.This indicates the good heat transfer between steam and feed water & hence there is better performance of heater

3-The concept of "temperature approach" is closely related to ΔT. The temperature approach is the difference between the temperature of the hot fluid and the temperature of the cold fluid at the end of the heat exchanger. A smaller temperature approach is often desired to maximize heat transfer efficiency, but it is limited by practical considerations.

4-the terminal temperature difference is a key parameter in the analysis, design, and optimization of heat exchange systems. It plays a vital role in determining heat transfer rates, efficiency, and the size of heat exchangers, ultimately impacting the performance and cost of thermal systems in various engineering applications

5-Station heat rate will improve

6-Cycle efficiency will increase

7-Less steam consumption for feed water heating

Calculation of DCA

1-A HP heater is used to heat the feed water from 170 °C to 190 °C by using turbine bleed steam at 17 kg/cm2 and 340 °C. The condensate returning from heater is at 180 °C, calculate the DCA of heater.

We have,

DCA = Temperature of condensate leaving the heater – Temperature of feed water entering the heater

DCA = 180 - 170 = 10 °C

Note: For best performance, heaters are designed to get DCA 3 to 5 °C at full operation capacity.

2-A LP heater is used to heat the feed water from 55 °C to 70 °C by using turbine extraction steam at 1.1 kg/cm2 and 125 °C. The condensate returning from heater is at 75 °C, calculate the DCA of heater.

We have,

DCA = Temperature of condensate leaving the heater – Temperature of feed water entering the heater

DCA = 75 - 55 = 20 °C

Note: For best performance, heaters are designed to get DCA 3 to 5 °C at full operation capacity.

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### What is the significance of Terminal temperature difference (TTD) in feed water heaters ???

The Terminal Temperature Difference (ΔT or delta T) is a crucial concept in the field of heat transfer and thermodynamics. It represents the temperature difference between the hot and cold fluids in a heat exchanger at the point where they leave the heat exchanger. The significance of terminal temperature difference lies in its impact on the efficiency and performance of heat exchange processes.

Terminal temperature difference is the difference between the saturation temperature at the operating pressure of the inlet steam to the heater and the temperature of the feed water leaving the heater.

The heating steam temperature they are talking about is the saturation temperature of the steam for the given supply pressure. The highest pressure heater is almost always receiving steam that is still superheated (Energy above saturation temp/pressure) If the incoming steam has 15 degrees of superheat, and the outgoing feed water absorbs all of that and is heated to 2 degrees above the saturation temperature of the supplied heating steam pressure, You have a negative 2 degree TTD.

Most of the other heaters are heated with steam from further down the turbine steam path, and have very little or no super heat in their steam, therefore, no negative TTD.

Terminal temperature difference provides feedback on the feed water heater’s performance relative to heat transfer

Significance of TTD.

1-It gives the feed back on performance of heat exchanger

2-Higher TTD is nothing but thee is more difference between saturation temperature of steam and feed water leaving the heater.This indicates the poor performance of heater.Similarly lower TTD is nothing but thee is small difference between saturation temperature of steam and feed water leaving the heater.This indicates the good heat transfer between steam and feed water & hence there is better performance of heater

3-The concept of "temperature approach" is closely related to ΔT. The temperature approach is the difference between the temperature of the hot fluid and the temperature of the cold fluid at the end of the heat exchanger. A smaller temperature approach is often desired to maximize heat transfer efficiency, but it is limited by practical considerations.

4-the terminal temperature difference is a key parameter in the analysis, design, and optimization of heat exchange systems. It plays a vital role in determining heat transfer rates, efficiency, and the size of heat exchangers, ultimately impacting the performance and cost of thermal systems in various engineering applications

5-Station heat rate will improve

6-Cycle efficiency will increase

7-Less steam consumption for feed water heating

Read more>>>> on Drain cooler approach-DCA

Calculation of TTD of feed water heater.

1-A HP heater is used to heat the feed water from 125 °C to 160 °C by using MP steam at pressure 13 kg/cm2 at temperature 280 °C, calculate the TTD.

We have,

TTD = Saturation temperature of inlet steam - Feed water outlet temperature

Saturation temperature of inlet steam at 13 kg/cm2g pressure = 195.6 °C

TTD = 195.6 - 160 = 35.6 °C

Note: For best performance, heaters are designed to get TTD 3 to 5 °C at full operation capacity.

2-A LP heater is used to heat the feed water from 80 °C to 110 °C by using LP steam at pressure 2.5 kg/cm2A at temperature150 °C, calculate the TTD.

We have,

TTD = Saturation temperature of inlet steam - Feed water outlet temperature

Saturation temperature of inlet steam at 2.5 kg/cm2g pressure = 125°C

TTD = 125-110= 15 °C

3-A HP heater is used to heat the feed water from 105°C to 140 °C by using MP steam at pressure 8 kg/cm2 at temperature 220 °C, calculate the TTD.

We have,

TTD = Saturation temperature of inlet steam - Feed water outlet temperature

Saturation temperature of inlet steam at 8 kg/cm2g pressure = 170 °C

TTD = 170 - 140 = 30 °C

Note: For best performance, heaters are designed to get TTD 3 to 5 °C at full operation capacity.

4-A LP heater is used to heat the feed water from 47 °C to 78 °C by using LP steam at pressure 0.62 kg/cm2A at temperature 87 °C, calculate the TTD.

We have,

TTD = Saturation temperature of inlet steam - Feed water outlet temperature

Saturation temperature of inlet steam at 0.62 kg/cm2g pressure = 87 °C

TTD = 87 - 78 = 9 °C