Various IBR forms, acts & regulations for a power plant engineers

Sl No.
IBR Form No.
Details of forms
Memorandum for Boiler inspection or registration
Issued by inspection authority during new construction
Issued by inspection authority during new construction for foreign code boilers
Certificate of manufacture issued by constructor
Steam pipe line test certificate  issued by manufacturer
Tubes  test certificate issued by manufacturer
Test certificates for  fittings & mountings (Valves,bend,elbow,tee etc)
Test certificates of casting & forging issued by manufacturer
Boiler use provisional order issued by Boiler inspector authority
Certificate issued by  directorate of steam boiler for boiler use
Inspecting authority (directorate of steam boiler) certificate for constructional Boiler
Certificate for the use of an Economiser
Welder qualification record
IBR welder certificate
Certificate for approval of tube maker
Certificate for approval of pipe maker
Certificate for approval of material testing laboratory
Certificate for approval for RLA organisation
Form No.C
Certificate for 2nd class Boiler attendant issued by Directorate of steam Boilers under rule-41
Form No.B
Certificate for 1st class Boiler attendant issued by Directorate of steam Boilers under rule-41
Form No.B
Certificate for BOE  issued by Directorate of steam Boilers under rule-40 Boiler operation engineer-2011

Power plant consruction materials & welding electrodes used

Various sections and their significance of IBR act 1923.

Sl. No.
Section No.
Used for
New boiler registration
Renewal of boiler on form VI
Provisional order on form V
Boiler alteration, modification
Penalties on illegal use of boilers

Power plant maintenance Questions & Answers

Various regulations and their significance of IBR regulation 1950.

Sl. No.
Used for
Preparation for boiler inspection
Boiler hydraulic test
Boiler open inspection
Boiler RLA test or NDT tests

Why do the Boilers Explode???

10-Tips to reduce LOI in Boilers

Batteries & troubleshooting


1-List down the applications of auxiliary DC power supply system in Power plants?
  •  Protections relays
  • Circuit breakers
  • DCS
  • Trip circuits
  • Signaling
  • Telephone system & communication
  • Emergency lighting
  • Transmitters & Positioners
  • Emergency oil pumps
  • Metering panels

2-List down the various DC voltages & their applications in power plants
Sl No.
220 VDC & 110 VDC
Protection system
Emergency lighting
Trip & closing coil of circuit breakers
Operating mechanisms
48 VDC
Telephone communication
+/- 24 VDC
Control circuits
Measuring instruments
Static relays

3-What is the power source for DC supply?
Main power source is lead-acid storage battery & AC/DC rectifier set
4-What are the installation requirements for lead acid battery ?
  • The room should be isolated from other system
  • Room should have adequate lighting & ventilation
  • The room walls & floor should have acid proof tiles
  • Battery cells should be installed on insulated racks
  • Racks should be placed on insulator generally porcelain insulators
  • Cables should be acid proof
  • The DC bus bars should be of round or flat copper materials
  • Bus bars connections are made by soldering or brazing
  • The positive terminal of the battery is Red & negative terminal should be blue
30-selected QnA on power Transformers
5-How do you calculate the maximum discharge current of batteries?
Maximum discharge current = (Continuous load (W1) + Short time Load (W2)) / Rated Voltage
6-How do you specify the batteries?
Batteries have following specification:
  • Rated voltage
  • No.of cells
  • AH capacity
  • Arrangement of cells
  • Details of charging equipment

7-What do you mean by AH of batteries?
AH (Ampere hour) is the capacity of battery. It is the product of current and total time required for discharge. It depends on the magnitude of discharge current.
8-How do you decide the number of batteries for a particular battery bank?
No. of battery cells = Bus bar voltage / Voltage of one cell
9-What are the various charging methods employed for batteries?
  • Initial charging
  • Quick charging
  • Trickle charging
60-Basic questions & Answers on power plant electrical system

10-What do you mean by trickle charging? & what is its significance?
Trickle charging is constant charging current that is supplied to battery to compensate its discharge current.
Batteries get discharge when not in use. Hence to avoid sulphating, the batteries should be kept continuous charging by trickle charging.
11-What do you mean by primary cells (dry cell) & secondary cells?
Primary cells are non rechargeable cells & Secondary cells are storage batteries
12-What are anode, cathode & electrolyte in Lead-acid batteries?
  • Cathode: Sponge lead
  • Anode: Lead Peroxide (PbO2)
  • Electrolyte: Sulphuric acid & water

13-What is the voltage level of lead acid batteries that are generally employed?
It is 2 V
14-What is the voltage level of fully charged & fully discharged lead acid battery?
Voltage of fully charged cell is 2.5 V & 1.75 V for fully discharged cell
15-What will happen during battery discharge & charging of lead acid battery?
During discharging process, the lead & lead peroxide het change into lead sulphate. And during charging lead sulphate gets convert into lead & lead peroxide
16-How do you check the specific gravity (SG) of electrolyte of lead acid battery?
Specific gravity (SG) is checked with the help of Hydrometer
17-What is the SG of fully charged & fully discharged electrolyte
SG Fully charged electrolyte: 1.28 & 1.12 for fully discharged electrolyte
18-What is the proportion of Sulphuric acid & water in Lead acid batteries?
Sulphuric acid: 64% & Distilled water: 36%
19-How do make up electrolyte level in lead-acid batteries?
Lower level of electrolyte is due to evaporation of water.
If the lower electrolyte level is due to evaporation of water, then add distilled water. And if If the lower electrolyte level is due to spilling over bubbling, then add acid & water solution.
20-Explain the charging method of lead-acid battery?
During charging process current forced into battery from opposite direction to its normal direction of current flow.
That is during normal use current leaves from positive terminal & enters through negative terminal. During charging current enters through positive terminal & leaves through negative terminal
21-Why do the lead-acid batteries get discharge when they are not in use?
This is because internal discharge current due to impurities in the electrolyte
22-What electrolyte is used in Nickel-Iron batteries?
Potassium hydroxide
23-What is the voltage level & density of electrolyte of Nickel-Iron battery?
It is 1.2 V & 1.2
24-Which electrolyte is used for Nickel Cadmium batteries?
Potassium hydroxide
25-What precautions do you take to avoid over discharging of battery?
  • Over discharging can be avoided by
  • Regular charging of battery
  • Avoid excessive discharge rate
  • Avoid short-circuit currents & leakage current
  • Schedule charging & discharging
  • When not in use, battery terminals should be considered
Basics of power plant instrumentations
26-What do you mean by sulphated Battery?
Discharge battery with abnormal hardened lead sulphate on its plate is a Sulphated battery
27-What actions you will take if Battery is charging slowly?
  • Check battery connections & rectify if there are loose connections
  • Check charger capacity
  • Add distilled water or acid water solution if electrolyte is low
  • Check sulphatation of battery & rectify it
  • Increase current rating
  • Check connection that is positive lead of charger to positive of battery & negative to negative

28-What are the reasons for overheating of battery while charging?
  • Poor ventilation
  • High charging rate

Lower specific gravity of electrolyte
29- What are the reasons for overheating of battery while discharging?
High discharge rate
Separators between plates have damaged
30-What are the reasons for cells having unequal voltages?
  • Over discharge
  • Lower electrolytes level
  • Foreign material in electrolyte
  • Positive plate worn out

Valves: DO you know these..???

  •  Valve is a Mechanical or electromechanical device which is used to control the flow, pressure & temperature of fluid.
  • Generally Globe valve, Gate valves, Butterfly valve, diaphragm valve, needle valve, Non return valves etc used in power plant various applications.
  • The materials which are directly in contact with high pressure & temperature fluid are called trim materials.
  • IBR Valves materials are manufactured according to the ASME class 16.34 B
  • “Y” type globe valves have minimum pressure drop as compared to normal globe valves
  • WCB indicates cast carbon steel, includes the standard A 216 . Used for fluid temperature up to 425 deg C
  • WC-6 indicates Chromium Molybdenum steel, includes the standard A 217. Used for fluid temperature up to 575 deg C
  • WC-9 indicates Cast alloy steel, includes the standard A 217. Used for fluid temperature up to 593 deg C
  • SA 105 indicates forged & SA 182 indicates forged alloy steels

Equivalent grades of valves:
  1. SA 216 WCB/WCC: SA 105N
  2. SA 217 WC6: SA 182 F11
  3. SA 217 WC9: SA 182 F22
  4. SA 217 C12A : SA 182 F91

  • The MOC of Stud & nut materials of high pressure valves are SA 194 Gr.B7 & SA 194-2H
  • Stem nuts of all high pressure valves is of Aluminium bronze materials
  • The yoke of all high pressure valves are made up of material A-216 WCB
  • Hand wheel of all HP valves are made up of SG iron 400/12
  • Stems of all HP valves are made up of A 479-410-2
IBR acts, regulations & forms used

Comparison between Gate valve & Gate valve
  • For a same size of valves, the size & weight of gate valves is more as compared to globe valves
  • Time required for operating the gate valve is more as compared to globe valve
  • Effort required to operate the gate valve is less as compared to globe valve
  • Complicated maintenance procedure for larger size gate valves & simple maintenance procedure for globe valves
  • In gate valve pressure drop of fluid is very less as compared to globe valve
  • Gate valves cannot be used for flow regulating valves whereas globe valves can be used
  • Very less or no turbulence of fluid in gate valves whereas there is much turbulence in globe valves
  • Upon prolonged exposure of cast carbon steel or forged carbon steel valves to temperatures above 425°C, the carbide phase of steel may be converted to graphite. Permissible but not recommended for prolonged use above 425°C.
Basics of safety valves

15-Emergencies in power plant operation

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