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Why does vacuum in steam condenser reduce or drop??

  1-High exhaust temperature: Vacuum drops or maintains at lower side due to high exhaust steam temperature flow into steam condenser. This high exhaust temperature is mainly due to 1-Operation of Turbine at lower loads 2-More clearance in labyrinth seals 3-Not operating exhaust hood sprays 4-More load on condenser 5-Breaking of ejector U loop 2-Low circulating cooling water flow Vacuum in condenser reduces due to inadequate cooling water flow through steam condenser. This is mainly due to; 1-Problems associated with pumps 2-Air pockets in pipe line 3-Leakages in cooling water line 4-Stuck of discharge valve of pump 3-High cooling water temperature at condenser inlet Higher cooling water temperature at condenser inlet results into reduction of vacuum due to poor heat transfer from steam to water 4-Poor heat transfer in condenser Very less or poor heat transfer in steam condenser reduces vacuum to very low level resulting into high exhaust temperature &am

Calculation of raw water requirement and Reservoir size for a power plant

In order to calculate the raw water requirement for a power plant, first of all we should know the losses in power plant. As per new law raw water consumption should be 2.5 liters/kwh, presently it is around 4.5 liters/kwh. Different losses in power plants : A-Boiler Boiler blow down : 2% of steam generation Deaerator vent loss : 0.1% of Deaeration Soot blower steam : 0.8 to 1% of Boiler steam generation per day B-Turbine & Process steam  Process steam lines losses due to drain & traps : 1% of steam generation Cooling water evaporation loss : 2% of cooling water circulation Losses in process return condensate : 10% of steam given to process C-Water treatment plant (WTP) Clarifier : 2% of total raw water input or 5% of DM water generation MGF back wash water loss : 40% of MGF inlet water (Back wash frequency : once in every 8 hours of operation) Reverse Osmosis (RO) plant reject water : 25% of total input water to RO plant or 35%

Power plant: Water sources & impurities present in it.

Water is basically  the combination of 2 parts of Hydrogen & 1 part of Oxygen. It is very impossible to get pure water in the nature . Pure water does not exist in nature due to its characteristic as solvent. Number of matters like gases, minerals and organic materials dissolve in the water easily. Water mixes with   fine particles wherever it flows such as silt, sand, iron,mud & organics etc. Biological growths like algae & bacteria take place in the water. Thus, water is usually contaminated with dissolved & un-dissolved solids along with living matters! Raw Water sources in nature: Rain water: Surface water:Rivers, Streams, Ponds, Lakes, and Reservoirs Ground water :Springs, Shallow Wells and Deep Wells For Boilers, heat exchangers ,domestic & other industrial purpose, we cannot use these above water directly from their sources.Before using it, need to carryout some treatment to get required quality for particular application. water bei

Water treatment plant chemicals and their functions

WTP CHEMICALS SL NO. CHEMICAL NAME FUNCTION APPLICATION 1 Sodium Hypochlorite To kill microorganisms (bacteria. Algae and other germs) Clarifier Ultra Filter (UF) Cooling tower 2 Ferric chloride Coagulation Clarifier 3 Polyelectrolyte Flocculation Clarifier 4 Hydrochloric acid Regeneration by cation exchange Regeneration of SAC, MB Membrane cleaning UF & RO Membranes 5 Caustic soda lye Regeneration by anion exchange Regeneration of SBA, MB. Membrane Alkali Cleaning UF 6 Caustic flakes Regeneration by anion exchange Regeneration of SBA, MB. 7 Trisodium phospate Sludge Conditioner & Corrosion inhibitor Boiler steam drum Drum (Through HP   dosing pump) 8 Hydrazine Hydrate To remove Oxygen 1-
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