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Why does vacuum in steam condenser reduce or drop??

  1-High exhaust temperature: Vacuum drops or maintains at lower side due to high exhaust steam temperature flow into steam condenser. This high exhaust temperature is mainly due to 1-Operation of Turbine at lower loads 2-More clearance in labyrinth seals 3-Not operating exhaust hood sprays 4-More load on condenser 5-Breaking of ejector U loop 2-Low circulating cooling water flow Vacuum in condenser reduces due to inadequate cooling water flow through steam condenser. This is mainly due to; 1-Problems associated with pumps 2-Air pockets in pipe line 3-Leakages in cooling water line 4-Stuck of discharge valve of pump 3-High cooling water temperature at condenser inlet Higher cooling water temperature at condenser inlet results into reduction of vacuum due to poor heat transfer from steam to water 4-Poor heat transfer in condenser Very less or poor heat transfer in steam condenser reduces vacuum to very low level resulting into high exhaust temperature &am

Questions & Answers on Power Transformers

    1-What do you mean by power transformer? It is a static Electro-magnetic machine which transforms alternating current from one AC voltage to another AC voltage at same frequency & at the same apparent power (KVA). 2-What is the principle of Power transformer operation? Power transformers work on the principle of electromagnetic induction. Which states that, EMF induced in a closed conducting circuit when the magnetic flux linking with that circuit changes in time. 3-What is the main function of a power transformer? Generally it is used for stepping up or stepping down of Voltage to desired level 4-What are the various parts of power transformer? General arrangement of Power Transformer Casing Core Primary & secondary windings LV & HV bushings Radiators & cooling system Conservator Breather Protection devices like Buchholz relay, relief valves, temperature sensors 5-Why does the oil conservator is placed at higher elevation? Oil conservator is placed at a slightly hi

It's all about HP heaters (Feed water heaters) in Power plants

  1-Why do you use HP heaters in power plants? HP heaters are used for heating the feed water, which will contribute in increasing cycle efficiency as well as reduction in fuel consumption 2-What is the design code of HP heaters? HEI, ASME SEC VIII Div-I IBR 3-What are the advantages of using feed water heaters in power plants? Fuel consumption reduces  Reduce heat losses in the condenser  Lower emissions as fuel use is reduced due to improved heat rate Decreases the plant heat rate & hence increases the plant efficiency 4-What are the different types of feed water heaters? Open type feed water heaters & closed type feed water heaters 5-What do you mean by open type of feed water heaters? In open type feed water heaters steam directly mixes with feed water. Steam pressure used is lower < 5 kg/cm2 6-What do you mean by closed type of feed water heaters? In closed type feed water heaters steam directly mixes with feed water. Steam pressure used

Various IBR forms, acts & regulations for a power plant engineers

Sl No. IBR Form No. Details of forms 1 I Memorandum for Boiler inspection or registration 2 II Issued by inspection authority during new construction 3 II A Issued by inspection authority during new construction for foreign code boilers 4 III Certificate of manufacture issued by constructor 5 III A Steam pipe line test certificate  issued by manufacturer 6 III B Tubes  test certificate issued by manufacturer 7 III C Test certificates for  fittings & mountings (Valves,bend,elbow,tee etc) 8 III F Test certificates of casting & forging issued by manufacturer 9 V Boiler use provisional order issued by Boiler inspector authority 10 VI Certificate issued by  directorate of steam boiler for boiler use 11 VII Inspecting authority (directorate of steam boiler) certif