1.What are the emergencies that are expected to happen in boiler operation?
- Boilers tubes leakage
- Failure of feed water control station
- Unbalanced draft in furnace
- Furnace explosion
- Blow down valve failure
- Feed water pumps failure
- Secondary combustion in super heaters and ESP
- Failure due to overheating
- Failure due to internal scales
- Failure due to aging
- Failure due to uneven expansion
- Failure due to ash and flue gas erosion
- Failure due to material defects
- Failure due to internal and external tube corrosion
- Improper or effected circulation due to opening/passing of low point drains
- After tube leakage, Shutdown the boiler as soon as possible
- Allow to cool the boiler continuously by circulating feed water
- If necessary start fast cooling by keeping ‘ON’ ID and FD fans
- After cooling the boiler, identify the leakage tube/coil
- Drain the water up to the leakage point
- Find out the root cause of leakage
- If leakage is minor like pin hole, crack then weld the tube (follow welding procedure)
- If leakage is major like fish mouth damage, then replace the damaged part
- Allow to cool the joint for two hours
- Fill up the boiler and carryout hydraulic test at 1.25% of maximum operating pressure
- After ensuring the joint is free from leakage, drain the boiler up to normal drum level
- Start the boiler as per start up procedure
- Sudden loading and unloadingof Boiler
- Fluctuation in steam pressure
- Safety valve sudden pop up
- Priming and foaming
- Failure of drum level controller
- Leakage or passing of blow down valves
- Uncontrolled firing rate
- Leakages in tubes or coils
- Unbalanced draft
- Fuel moisture variation
- Sudden load change
- Failure of ID, FD fan
- Flue gas path choke up generally in APH
- Air and flue gas leakages
- Loose or improperly fitted fans guide vanes.
- Allow more feed water flow and maintain drum level normal.
- Reduce the boiler load and check the quantity of water flowing through the blow down line.
- If the water loss is less and acceptable run the boiler till upcoming planned shutdown, If it is more than acceptable, shutdown the boiler and get done the repair work of valve.
- Unbalanced draft i.e. high positive pressure
- Secondary combustion
- Bypassing the boiler protections and interlocks
- Scale and corrosion of pressure parts
Heat Transfer in Economizer, APH: Clean
Economiser coils and APH tubes regularly, maintain flue gas temperature as per
of Soot on Super Heater Coils, Economizer: Operate soot blowers regularly.
of Higher Moisture Content Fuel: Limit
the moisture content of fuel.
Economizer Feed Water Inlet Temperature: Reduce steam flow to HP/LP heaters.
Heating Surface of Boiler: Modify
the boiler pressure parts design in consultation with manufacturers and
Level Low: Increase
feed water flow proportionally.
Valve Lift: Drum
level starts to rise, so control feed water flow. In case of drum safety valve
lift there may be chances of failure of super heater coils due to less steam
circulation (starvation of coils), so utmost care must be taken to maintain
drum water level.
Draft May Become Unbalance: Maintain
furnace draft by controlling ID and FD fan speed manually.
- Higher Attemperation: Reduce firing rate and attemperator water flow.
Incomplete Combustion: Achieve proper and complete combustion, limit excess air and fuel moisture. Maintain 3Ts of combustion.
- Low Economizer Inlet Feed Water Temperature: Increase bleed steam to HP and LP heaters.
- Formation of Soot on Heat Transfer Surfaces: Operate soot blowers regularly at rated pressure and temperature.
- Back firing of boiler is due to:
- Unbalanced draught
- Reduced speed of ID fan or more speed of FD fan
- Improper locking of fans damper (which may disturb in fan running due to air pressure)
- Sudden trip of ID fan or closing of damper
- High moisture fuel
- More excess air
- Jamming of APH
- Incomplete combustion
- Insufficient combustion air
- More moisture content fuel
- Not meeting 3T’s of combustion
- Not working of cinder reinjection system
- Lower GCV fuel
- High ash content in fuel
- Low over fire air
Flue Gas Ducts Explosion: Before
light up purge the boiler properly.
to Achieve Furnace Temperature: Maintain
balanced draught (slightly positive).
in Drum Level: Maintain
drum level by taking feed water control valve in manual. Do not allow the drum
level to go high (>90%) or less (<20%).
of ID Fan or FD fans Due to Draught Fluctuation: Maintain furnace draft in manual mode
until boiler load reaches more than 30% of MCR.
Steam Temperature: Maintain
attempteration in manual and keep open attemperator isolation valves.
- Flue gas condensation in APH: By pass the APH for FD air flow to avoid flue gas condensation.
- Using low moisture coal
- Maintaining proper air fuel mixture
- Achieving proper combustion
- Using coal with no foreign materials
- Avoiding frequent startups and stops
- Use coal with high ash fusion temperature
- Maintain proper air fuel mixture so that speed of ID, FD fans and fuel feeding system can be optimized.
- Avoid using high moisture coal as it requires more air for combustion.
- Use VFDs to fuel feeding system.
- If boiler is running on load less than <30% shutoff the stand by fans.
- Tune the feed water control valve for maximum opening to reduce the speed of Boiler feed pump.
- Failure of Attemperator control valve
- More boiler load
- More heat transfer in super heater zone due to more velocity of flue gas
- More firing rate
- Low Economiser inlet feed water temperature
- High moisture fuel
- More excess air
- Low drum level
- Leakage of super heater coil
- Results into carryover of water into super heater coils which may damage coils due to high thermal shock.
- Can damage safety valve seats.
- Disturbs circulation ratio.
- Carry over with sharp fall in super heater temperature.
- Water may enter turbine and serious damages to turbine may occur
- Super Heater deposit and fouling.
- Turbine Deposit and increase in specific steam consumption.
- Maintain pH of water in the desired range to control corrosion.
- O2 in feed water should be controlled within 0.007 ppm, primarily by good deaeration, supplemented by Oxygen scavenger dozing.
- Condenser leak should be immediately detected and acted upon.
- DM water storage tank should be properly sealed.
- Condensers and heaters should be air-tight.
- Proper wet lay-up of units during shut downs.
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