Showing posts with label power plant. Show all posts
Showing posts with label power plant. Show all posts

What are the statutory and Legal compliances for Power plant installation,operation and maintenance???


Ø Water pollution and prevention:Rules - 1975 , Act -1988 Issued by CPCB or SPCB,Record:Water consent

Ø Water cess act:Act - 1992,2017 Rules - 2003 Act - 1992,Issued by CPCB or SPCB

Ø Air pollution and prevention rule:Act-1987,Issued by CPCB or SPCB

Ø Notification  - National Ambient Air Quality Standards 1994 &  Ambient Air Quality Standard for Ammonia (NH3) 1998,Issued by CPCB or SPCB

Ø The Environment (Protection) Act, 1986, form V,Issued by CPCB or SPCB

Ø Noise pollution (regulation and control) rules,14-02-2000 ,Issued by  SPCB

Ø The Batteries (management and handling) rules, 2001,Issued by CPCB or SPCB: Record: stock register

Ø The Plastics(Manufacture, Usage and Waste Management) Rules,2009,,Issued by CPCB or SPCB: Record: Purchase order

Ø Plastic Waste Management (Second Amendment)Rules, 2021

Ø The Manufacture, storage and import of hazardous chemical rules, 1989, Record: MSD,,Issued by CPCB or SPCB:

Ø The Hazardous Wastes (Management, Handling & Transboundry  Movement) Rules, 2010, Issued by CPCB or SPCB: Record: Generation data

Ø The Bio-medical waste (management and handling) rules, 1998,Generation & Disposal record

Ø The Ozone depleting substances (regulation and control) rules, 2000 , Issued by:Ministry of Environment and Forests.Record: Gas details

Ø The Public liability insurance Act,1991,issued by:Ministry of Environment and Forests, Records: Insurance copy

Ø Explosives:Petroleum Act 1934, Rules 1976, Issued by: PESO, Record: License copy

Ø Gas Cylinder rules, 1981,Issued by: PESO, Record: License copy

Ø BARC -Radiography Protection rule-2004,Issued by: BARC. Record: Radiography Operator Certificate

Ø Factories Act 1948 :

Ø Approval of plans from the chief inspector of Factories (FA1948 Sc 6, MFR1963 Rule 3), Issued by DISH officer.Record: Form No.I

Ø Stability certificate (FA1948 sc 6, MFR1963 rule 3A),Issued by DISH officer.Record: Form No.IA

Ø Testing of drinking water (MFR 1963 Rule 43),Issued by DISH .Record:Test certificate

Ø Maintain report of examination of Lifting Machines, ropes & lifting tackles (FA1948 sc31,MFR1963 Rule 65),Issued by DISH.Records: Form No. 13 & Boiler passing Certificate

Ø Maintain Muster roll (FA1948 sc 92-106, MFR 1963 rule 122),Issued by DISH.Records: Form No. 29

Ø Workers participation in Safety Management (FA1948 sc 41G,MFR1963 Rule 73J)

Ø Health and safety policy, written statement.(FA1948 sc41 B, 7 A (3),MFR1963 Rule  8,121,122,73 - L, Record: HSE policy

Ø Fire Fighting Equipments in good working  condition - Maintenance record.

Ø Prepare & Disclose the information regarding On Site Emergency Plan.

Ø 1. Use of portable electric light  below 24 V inside any chamber, tank….

Ø 2. Use of flameproof fitting light below 24 v inside confined space of flammable gases area.

Ø Availability Of first aid Boxes

Ø Portable fire extinguisher -1 for every 500 sq. meter and placed max. 30 meter (MFR 1963 Rule 71 b (7))apart. ( As per IS stds -2190 )

Read Boiler IBR standards for inspection

Ø Factory Act 1948, Sec-21-Fencing of machinery.-

Ø Factory Act 1948, Sec-32-Floors, Stairs and Means of Access (1) Training 2) Work on height permit. 3) PPE's to be used. 4) safe working procedure to be followed.)

Ø Factory Act 1948, Sec-35-Protection of Eyes.- PPE"S are provided and used

Ø MFR 73-J (Under Sections 41 & 41-G of FA)-Safety Committee:1) Safety Committee members list 2) Attendance sheets of  meetings 3) Minutes of the meetings.

Ø Workmen compenstion / ESI, 1948, issued by ministory of labour

Ø The Contract Labour ( Regulation & Abolition ) Act 1970, issued by ministory of labour

Ø The Contract Labour (Regulation & Abolition ) Act 1970,

Ø Indian Boiler Act 1923 & Indian Boiler Regulations, 1950 ,The  Boiler Rules - 1966, Issued by Inspectorate of Boilers: Record: Boiler operators certificates

Ø Indian Boiler Act 1923 & Indian Boiler Regulations, 1950, The  Boiler Rules - 1967,Issued by Inspectorate of Boilers: Record: Competant person test reports

Ø Energy Conservation Act 2003, Issued by: BEE

Ø The Indian Electricity Rules, 1956

Ø Central Electricity Authority (Measures      relating to Safety and Electricity Supply) Regulations, 2007 DRAFT

Ø Central Motor Vehicles Rules 1989, Issued by Ministry of Road Transport and Highways, Records: PUCC

Ø INDIAN WIRELESS TELEGRAPHY ACT 1933(ACT XVIII OF 1933),issued by:Ministry of Communication, WPC Wing, Sanchar Bhawan, 20 Ashoka

Road, New Delhi-110 001, Record:Application for a licence to possess Wireless

Receiving and or Transmitting Apparatus

Ø THE DISASTER MANAGEMENT ACT 2003, Issued by: State Disaster Management Authority, Records: Mock drill reports

Ø The Chemical Accidents (Emergency Planning, Preparedness and Response) Rules, 1996,Issued by Ministry of Environment and Forests.Records:Mock Drill reports to District Collector

Ø Inter State Migrant Worker Act- 1979, issued by:Ministry of Labour.Record:Obtain licence under ISMW act

Ø Rule 40-Excavation or tunnel suitable measures are taken to avoid exposure of building workers to health hazards

 For more >>>>> Read powerplant and calculations

Top-85 interview questions for power plant shift incharge

 Top-85 interview questions for power plant shift incharge

General questions

1. What is the job profile or job description in your previous organization?

2. What are the challenging situations that you have faced in Boiler operation?

3. What re the challenging situations that you have faced in Turbine operation?

4. How you have managed multiple tasks during emergency operation?

5. What are the emergencies that you have come across during your shift operation & how you have handled those?

6. How do you handle conflicts or disagreements among team members during a shift?

7. In our industry, safety is a top priority. How do you promote and enforce safety protocols among your team?

8. What are the different types of LOTOs used in your plant?

9. What are the different types of work permits that you have come across?

10. Explain the JSAs of confined space work?

11. Explain the JSAs of hot work?

12. What do you mean by Near miss, TBT, PTW, RCA in safety?

13. Have you supervised the rigging task?

14. How do you coordinate with maintenance team?

15. How do you handle emergency situation in electrical system?

16. What are the reporting and documentation skills you have? and how often you do handle these?

Read powerplant O&M reference books 

17. Have you done Root cause analysis of any failure or plant tripping? Explain

18. What do you mainly observe during your shift field rounds?

19. How do you guide your subordinates like control room engineers,field engineers and E&I team in your shift operation?

20. What methods do you use to motivate and manage your team to achieve their best performance?

Technical Questions

1. What are the major losses in Boilers?

2. What are the major reasons for more fuel consumption in Boilers

3. What do you mean by SFC, SSC, SFR, PLF, SHR, SMP, SOP?

4. What do you understand plant heat rate?

5. WHat are your plan of actions to reduce plant heat rate?

6. How vacuum is related to steam consumption in Turbine?

7. How do you calculate the efficiency of steam condenser?

8. How do you calculate the efficiency of cooling tower?

9. What do you mean by Approach in cooling towers?

10. How do you calculate the Evaporation loss in cooling towers

11. What are the various chemicals used in cooling towers?

12. How does feed water inlet temperature at economizer inlet affects the Boiler performance?

13. What do you mean by TTD & DCA in heat exchanger?

14. What is the pressure/draft loss in Economizer, APH and ESP?

15. What are the reasons for increase in Turbine bleed steam pressure?

16. What are the reasons for increase in Turbine wheel chamber pressure?

17. Name the various drum pulleys used in belt conveyors?

18. How do you specify the conveyor belt?

19. What is the function of VGTU?

20. Which is the smallest pulley in belt conveyors?

21. What is the speed of belt conveyors? And how do you calculate it?

22. What is the heat required to raise water temperature from 25 deg c to 100 deg C at atmospheric pressure?

23. Why the dry saturated steam is being used for process heating?

24. What do you mean by Enthalpy?

25. Write down the formula for Plant heat rate calculation

26. What are the various circuit breakers used in your electrical system?

27. What is the function of AVR?

28. What is the significance of reactive power in electrical system?

29. What are your plan of actions to reduce Auxiliary power consumption of power plant?

30. What are the major reasons for more steam consumption of steam Turbine?

31. What are the different types of bearings used in power plant?

32. What is the difference between bearing prefix and suffixes?

33. Where do you use taper roller bearing?

34. What do you mean by back lash in gears?

35. Name the significance of viscosity in lubricant oil?

36. What are the major/critical parameters of Turbine oil that you get tested yearly?

37. Differentiate between 3-element and 2-element drum level controllers?

38. What do you see/observe in plant P&I drawing?

39. What are IOs in DCS system.NAme some IOs

40. What is the acceptable limit of Boiler safety valve blow down?

41. What parameters are checked in coal ultimate and proximate analysis?

42. What is the function of chemical TSP in boilers?

43. What are the chemicals used for regeneration in DM plant?

44. What chemicals are used in HRSCC and explain their function?

45. What is the significance of RO plant?

46. What is the Turbidity level at inlet and outlet of HRSCC?

47. What is meant by MSDS? What does it contain?

48. Define absolute pressure and gauge pressure

49. What are the maintenance activities carried on Boilers during annual shutdown

50. Differentiate between preventive and break down maintenance?

51. What do you mean by Proactive maintenance and CBM?

52. What are the units of measurement of vibration and sound levels?

53. What are the interlocks provided for Boiler and Turbines?

54. What is the significance of vacuum breaker valve and Rapture discs provided in steam condensers?

55. What do you mean by critical equipment?

For more >>>>>>read power plant and calculations

Qualification,roles & responsibilities of power plant manager


 Qualification: BE or Diploma with BOE

Experience: 10 to 15 years

Requisite characters & Qualification:

1-He should have thorough knowledge of power plant operation, maintenance & troubleshooting.

2-He should have experience in minimum 3-4 power plants

3-He should have good communication skills

4-He should have good documentation skills

5-Power plant manager should have thorough knowledge in Operation & maintenance activities

6-He should have good soft skills

7-Should have good leadership & Ownership qualities

8-Should have patience & ability to listen his subordinates

9-Should look more on man & machine safety rather than generation & performance

10-Should conduct or arrange trainings among various departments

11-Should handle all situations calmly with patience

12-Should have ability to implement innovative ideas

13-Should have well versed with legal & statutory norms related to Boilers & power plant

14-Should have good drafting skills

15-Should have good negotiation & presentation skills

16-Should strive to improve plant performance

17-Should have good administration & commercial skills

 Roles & Responsibilities:

1-Supervising plant operation & maintenance activities & ensuring safety in every activity

2-Maintenance spare planning

Read >>>Interview Questions for Powerplant manager

3-Maintenance annual budget preparation

4-Site expenditures & budgeting

5-Man power recruitment as per plant requirement

6-Man, machine & property safety

7-Plant house keeping

8-Preparation of monthly management information system

9-Reviewing of daily, weekly & monthly maintenance report

10-Review of daily, weekly & monthly generation reports

11-Arranging internal trainings on safety & other technical subjects

12-Arranging trainings by external experts like OEM, consultants etc

13-Arranging internal audits among various departments

14-Coordination between top management & employees

15-Coordination between top management & stake holders

16-Cost control

17-Appreciation for best performing employees

18-Expedition for following administration rules strictly




PMG, EXCITATION, AVR & Power generation phenomenon in Generators


The PMG (Permanent Magnet Generator) is a system which is used for secondary exciting. The PMG provides stable and reliable electric energy for AVR regardless the generator’s terminal voltage. The generator with PMG excitation system can provide 300% rated current during short-circuit, which occurs for 5–10 seconds.

The most common function of a diode is to allow an electric current to pass in one direction (called the diode’s forward direction), while blocking it in the opposite direction (the reverse direction). As such, the diode can be viewed as an electronic version of a check valve. This unidirectional behavior is called rectification, and is used to convert alternating current (AC) to direct current (DC).


DC supply is required to give to the field winding of a generator. This DC supply is obtained from various sources. Supply of DC power to the field is called excitation. There are two types of excitation.

• Separately excited generator
• Self-excited generator

In a separately excited generator, DC supply to the generator field is made available from a separate source which has no connection with the generator’s own generated supply. This type of generator is not used in the power plants. 

In a self-excited generator, DC supply to the field is temporarily given from the other source. Once the voltage is built up in the generator, this source is changed into the generator’s own generating supply. In this system, field supply is obtained either from an excitation transformer or from an exciter mounted on the generator shaft.

Brush less excitation system:
In this system, a small generator, called exciter, is mounted on the generator shaft. Exciter generator arrangement may be with brush-like static excitation system or brushless. In this arrangement, exciter generator is used which is a small generator having rotating coil and stationary field. This arrangement makes the excitation system brushless. No brush is required to feed the field current to the main generator. 

In exciter field of the exciter generator is stationary and the coil is rotating. Voltage generated in the rotating coil is rectified through a set of rotating diode bridge. Rotating diodes are mounted on an insulated base. Rectified output of this rotating diode bridge is connected to the field winding of the main generator (rotating) through cable which passes through drill way made in the shaft of generator. Supply to the stationary field of the exciter generator is obtained from an automatic voltage regulator (AVR). A separate source or a permanent magnet generator (PMG) is used for getting power supply for AVR. 

Power plant equipents efficiency calculation


AVR system is used to control the generator out put voltage, irrespective of any load on the generator. By raising or lowering the field current (excitation), the output voltage of the generator can be raised or lowered respectively. Raising or lowering of field current is done with the help of an AVR. When load on a generator increases, its output voltage drops. By raising the field current, voltage can be raised to the normal level. Like this when, the load on generator reduces, the voltage of generator increases. In this case, field current is required to be reduced.

Other function of AVR are
  • It controls the power factor of generator.
  • It limits the stator current and rotor current
  • It also limits the load angle.
  • It detects failure of any diode.
Phenomenon of Power generation in Turbine & Generators:

Calculation of Power generation in Steam Turbines
Step-I -Start Up:
  • After reaching the rated pressure and temperature of steam, turbine will be given run command.
  • Turbine will speed up as per start up curve and reaches rated speed.
  • At the rated ideal speed, turbine will consume minimum steam to maintain only speed.
  • At rated speed of Turbine , alternator (4 pole) also will rotate with 1500 rpm.
  • At this speed PMG will generate AC three phase voltage.
  • This three phase AC voltage is made to fed to AVR.
  • In AVR, this AC voltage will convert into DC through rectifier and is again fed to AC exciter field, which is stationary.
  • AC voltage generated from rotating coil of the AC exciter is rectified through rotating diodes and this DC voltage is fed to field winding of main generator through cable which passes through drill way made in the shaft of generator.
Step-II- Load Raising:
  • Once Generator reaches 1500 rpm AVR is made ‘ON.’
  • After AVR is made ON, rated voltage of generator is bulid up at its terminals.
  • Then Generator breaker is closed to share the auxiliary load of the plant.
  • After closing the Generator breaker, the generator gets synchronized with DG.
  • After synchronizing DG is made “OFF” and STG will share home load (plant auxiliary load).
  • In order to share the extra load on turbine, power is to be pumped to external grid.
  • In order to raise the load, a load “rise” command is given to Wood word governor through DCS or through local panel.
  • This “rise” command for a particular load is calculated in terms of percentage of droop in Governor & based on this a reference speed will be generated. (For example for 20 MW,6300 RPM & 4% droop Turbine  has reference speed  =6300+6300 X 4% = 6552 RPM) 
  • This calculated reference speed signal will be go to HP valve for opening the HP valve
  • After opening the HP valve torque on the turbine rotor will increase (speed will not increase as turbine is connected with grid frequency).
  • This torque on the turbine rotor will transfer to reduction gear box (RGB) and also on generator rotor.
  • Due to this higher torque stress will produce on stator winding, which causes to increase of current on main generator, as voltage and speed are constant.
  • This high current and voltage are compared and MW signal will be generated
  • This rise and drop in current and voltage will be sensed by AVR through CT/PT situated at generator output bus bars, so AVR maintains rated voltage by giving more/less excitation to AC exciter. Thus the process continues.

15-Emergencies in power plant operation

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